I have a blog post on calculating and checking the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) byte when transmitting serial data. Here is a link. Near the bottom, is a sketch fragment of my CRC function and a table. The table illustrates how the CRC is calculated as the function progresses, bit, by bit, through the data. Here is the output I received from the Arduino IDE Serial Monitor

**:**That's really ugly. The serial monitor that is part of the Arduino IDE does not print leading zeros. I wanted to see those zeros. "CRC" is an integer, so has 16 bits. "inByte[i]" is 8 bits long. I wrote a small function to calculate how many leading zeros to print when printing a binary number. Then, I expanded it to to handle numbers of any base, and finally, to add any leading character, not only zeros. This is the output using my leading character function

**:**My leading character function follows. It is amazingly simple. However, it's not universal. It does not handle minus signs or decimal points

**:**The "pow" operator raises the value in "base" to the power of "position" - 1. For example, if you wish to print a 16 bit binary number, "factor" will be 2

^{15}. You can see that "factor" can become a very large number, especially if you are dealing with decimal or hex numbers. Consequently, "factor" is a double, a floating point data type. However, the function may not work if "factor" wants to be too large. Just imagine if you wanted 16 characters of a decimal number. "factor" will be 1,000,000,000,000,000. A double data type for all Arduinos beside the Due is four bytes in length, not enough bytes to express 10^{15}. The Due may be able to handle 10^{15}- it's double is 8 bytes in length.Leading spaces can come in handy for printing dates. You can use it to line up dates like this

**:**- April 9, 2015
- April 10, 2015

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